Gastric bypass surgery is a type of bariatric (obesity) surgery designed to promote weight loss as a solution to health problems caused by obesity. This procedure is based on reducing the size of the stomach and altering the passage of food through the digestive system.
Key features of gastric bypass surgery are:
- Stomach Reduction: The surgeon separates the stomach into a very small pouch (about the size of an egg) and a larger portion. The capacity of this small pouch is limited, so the patient eats less.
- Intestinal Reconfiguration: The surgeon bypasses a section of the small intestine and directly connects the smaller stomach pouch to the middle of the intestine. This changes the way the body absorbs calories and nutrients.
- Outcomes: Gastric bypass promotes weight loss as the patient eats less and the body absorbs fewer calories.
Benefits of this type of surgery include rapid weight loss, improvement in certain chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, and a significant increase in overall quality of life.
Gastric bypass surgery is generally recommended for patients who have been unsuccessful in losing weight with just diet and exercise and have a specific body mass index (BMI). It’s also essential for individuals considering this surgery to be prepared for a permanent lifestyle change and to adhere to these changes.
Types of Gastric Bypass Surgery
Here are the most common types of gastric bypass surgeries:
- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB): This is the most common form of gastric bypass surgeries. In this method, a small pouch is created from the top portion of the stomach and is directly connected to a section of the small intestine. This causes the food to bypass the rest of the stomach and the initial part of the small intestine.
- Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB): This is a relatively newer method and is technically similar to the Roux-en-Y but involves creating only one connection between the stomach pouch and the small intestine. The surgery is shorter, and some research suggests it has a lower risk of complications than RYGB, with similar outcomes.
- Double Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (DAGB): This method creates two separate connections between the stomach and the small intestine. It allows for less absorption of nutrients, potentially leading to greater weight loss.
Each method has its own advantages, risks, and outcomes.
Gastric Bypass Surgery Procedure
Gastric bypass surgery is one of the effective bariatric surgical methods used in the treatment of obesity. This surgery is performed with the goal of limiting the amount of food a person can intake and reducing the number of calories absorbed during digestion.
How Is the Procedure Performed?
Preparation Phase: In a hospital setting, the patient is administered general anesthesia to ensure that the patient does not feel any pain during the surgery.
Laparoscopic Method: The surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdominal area and inserts laparoscopic instruments and a camera. Through the camera, the surgeon can perform the surgery without making a large incision, which leads to a faster recovery process.
Creation of a Stomach Pouch: The surgeon creates a small pouch at the upper part of the stomach. This pouch serves as the main storage area for food and is approximately the size of an egg.
Connection to the Small Intestine: Subsequently, the surgeon directly connects a portion of the small intestine to this pouch, allowing food to bypass the large stomach portion and a section of the small intestine, going directly to the pouch.
Open Surgery: Laparoscopic methods may not be applicable to every patient. In some cases, the surgeon may need to perform the gastric bypass procedure using an “open surgery” approach, making a larger incision in the abdominal area.
Results: After the surgery, most patients experience rapid weight loss, which is often accompanied by overall improvements in their health.
What is the purpose of the pouch?
The digestive process of foods entering a portion of the small intestine directly connected to the small stomach pouch created after gastric bypass surgery differs from that of a normal stomach:
Limited Capacity: The capacity of the small stomach pouch created is limited. This causes patients to consume smaller amounts of food, leading to quicker feelings of fullness.
Rapid Passage: Foods pass from the stomach pouch to the small intestine more rapidly. As a result, the absorption of nutrients is reduced.
Nutrient Absorption: A portion of the small intestine directly connected to the small stomach pouch is where many nutrients are normally absorbed. Due to this connection, foods bypass this section, resulting in reduced absorption. This particularly affects the absorption of fats and some carbohydrates.
Nutritional Deficiencies: Following gastric bypass, the body’s ability to absorb certain vitamins and minerals may decrease. This can lead to deficiencies in nutrients such as B12, iron, calcium, and folic acid. Therefore, it is recommended that patients take vitamin and mineral supplements throughout their lifetime.
Low Blood Sugar: In some patients, there can be a rapid drop in blood sugar due to the rapid digestion of carbohydrates.
The rapid passage of food from the stomach pouch to the small intestine is part of the mechanism by which surgery promotes weight loss. However, this rapid transition can also cause a condition known as “dumping syndrome.” This occurs when high-sugar or fatty foods pass quickly into the small intestine and can cause nausea, cramps, diarrhea, dizziness and sweating. These symptoms may help patients adjust their diet.
Benefits and Risks of Gastric Bypass Surgery
As with every surgical procedure, this surgery comes with its own set of benefits and risks.
- Weight Loss: Gastric bypass surgery offers significant weight loss in a short period. This can lead to a notable improvement in overall quality of life.
- Reduction in Obesity-Related Complications: Many health issues associated with obesity start to decrease after the surgery. This can contribute to an improvement in overall health and increased life expectancy.
- Resolution of Type 2 Diabetes: For many patients, symptoms of type 2 diabetes can entirely disappear or significantly decrease post-surgery.
- Decreased Risk of Heart Disease: Gastric bypass can reduce the risk of heart disease, contributing to long-term heart health.
Risks and Complications:
- Bleeding: Post-operative bleeding is a possible complication and requires careful monitoring.
- Stomach Issues: Problems such as nausea, reflux, diarrhea, and vomiting can be seen in some patients post-surgery.
- Infection: There’s always a risk of infection at the surgical site.
- Blood Clots: Blood clots, especially deep vein thrombosis in the legs, are a potential post-operative risk.
- Leaks: Leaks can occur in the stomach or intestine, leading to severe complications.
- Bowel Obstruction: Bowel obstruction refers to a blockage in a part of the intestines and can require emergency treatment.
- Gallstones and Ulcers: The formation of gallstones and ulcers is a possible post-operative complication.
Long-Term Management and Follow-up After Gastric Bypass Surgery
Gastric bypass surgery is a popular form of bariatric surgery and is considered a significant weight loss procedure. However, the success of the surgery is contingent upon the patient’s dedication during the postoperative process and the long-term care they receive.
- Nutrition and Supplements: After the surgery, the absorption of vitamins and nutrients may change. Therefore, patients might need to take certain mineral supplements and vitamins for life. Regular consultations with a dietitian are essential to develop correct nutritional habits.
- Dumping Syndrome: Dumping syndrome occurs when high-sugar or fatty foods move too rapidly into the small intestine. Symptoms include nausea, cramps, and diarrhea. This can be managed, especially by limiting the amount of sugar consumed after meals.
- Medications and Pain: Pain is typically seen in the initial days after surgery. However, if persistent pain or discomfort is present, its cause should be determined, and appropriate treatment should be initiated. Moreover, the absorption and effect of some medications can change after the surgery, requiring dose adjustments.
- Lifestyle Changes: Patients’ commitment to permanent lifestyle changes is the key to long-term success. This includes regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding tobacco use.
- Follow-up Appointments: Post-operative follow-up appointments are critical to evaluate the patient’s progress and diagnose possible complications early on.
- Counseling: Psychological support and counseling can assist in managing emotional challenges and facilitate the patient’s adjustment to their new body.
Cost of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Turkey
It is difficult to give an exact figure for gastric bypass surgery prices in Turkey, but prices may vary from 5,000 USD to 12,000 USD on average in 2023. However, these prices may change over time, you can contact our representative directly to get the most up-to-date price. Get Gastric Bypass Surgery Price
Generally, patients are discharged from the hospital a few days after surgery. Full recovery time usually varies between 4-6 weeks. However, each individual’s recovery process may differ.
In the first 12-18 months, it is common for patients to lose 50-75% of their body weight. However, this rate may vary depending on the individual’s lifestyle changes and diet.
Gastric bypass is usually a permanent surgery, but in some cases it is technically reversible. However, this can be a complex and risky procedure.
For the right patients, gastric bypass surgery can be an effective and safe weight loss option. However, considering the potential benefits and risks, careful evaluation under the guidance of a bariatric surgeon should be performed to decide whether surgery is appropriate for an individual.